Adscription

The adscription, introduced in 1733, tied males of the peasant class, aged 14-36 to the estate they belonged to.

In 1742, the age limit was expanded further so it now included males from age 9-40, and in 1764 it was expanded even further to the age 4-40.

The adscription was officially abolished in 1788, but it took until 1800 before all the peasants were free.

Burial place

There is a limit to how long a burial place will be preserved, depending on several factors. Not only if it is holding a coffin or an urn but also the material of the coffin and the soil conditions.

The preservation period for a burial place holding a coffin has to be at least 20 years and for urns, at least 10 years. Periods of 25 and 30 years are common though. 
The descendants of the deceased may prolong the preservation period by payment.

Only very unique headstones or monuments of closed burial places are saved. They will be in a special place in the cemetery, most often along the inside of the cemetery wall.  

Grades

When a child was confirmed, one set of grades was given for each of Knowledge and Conduct on the scale:

  • Ug    = Udmærket godt (Very well)
  • Mg    = Meget godt  (Nice)
  • G      = Godt  (Good)
  • Tg     = Temmelig godt  (Pretty good)
  • Mdl   = Mådeligt  (Very mediocre)
  • Slet   = Slet  (Bad)

The scale was in use 1805-1963. 

Parish

Denmark has 2,169 parishes, varying a lot in size; from more than 20,000 people to less than a hundred.

The parishes have also been part of the temporal administration, though sometimes the temporal parish wasn’t the same as the ecclesiastical.

Servant's Conduct Book

Every servant must have a servant’s conduct book. Before use, it must be provided with a seal from either the police authority (in Copenhagen and in the market towns) or from the incumbent (in the rural areas). In 1742, the age limit was expanded further so it then included males from age 9-40, and in 1764 it was expanded even further to the age 4-40.

A child who wanted to serve after having completed school, must obtain a servant’s conduct book if they didn’t already have one, and the book should be provided with their school certificate, when and where the child was born, if the child was christened and confirmed, and if that was the case, where and when.

Any householder who employed a servant, must provide the servant’s conduct book with information on the when the servant worked for him, what the pay was, and what kind of work was provided. Anyone who moved to a market town or cure where they haven’t been before, to work as a servant, must notify either the police authority or the incumbent so they could certify the servant’s conduct book.

The servant must also notify the proper authorities when moving from the market town or cure. Not having or updating the information in the servant’s conduct book properly was punished with fines. Removing pages or purposefully making information in the book illegible is punished with either fines or prison. 

Working conditions

Working conditions were still very harsh for the workers and smallholders in the last half of the 1800’s, and in some cases well into the new century. The workdays were long and the work was gruelling and exhausting. The wages of the servants, both in the cities and in the countryside were negotiable, there were no collective agreement or tariff; supply and demand dictated the size of the pay.

In 1872, the Ministry of the Interior researched the conditions of the city- and farmworkers, and came to the conclusion that only in one single county – the county of Copenhagen – could a farmworker manage to make a – poor - living for a wife and two children, and only if he could work all year with no period(s) of unemployment along the way, which was quite unlikely. 
The wife and children of a family could work as well, and often did, to one degree or another, but this could in turn cause problems with the keeping of the household and children. Many wives of smallholders and farmworkers had jobs they could do at home, like spinning and sewing for small companies, but the pay was poor.